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How do American swimmers manage to trash cheating scumbags without steroids?




Steroid use by swimmers

         Androgenic Steroids improve performance by increasing tissue mass. These also help in carrying more oxygen through blood cells and also enhance nerve induction or signaling. A trained individual gets more benefit out of any pattern or therapy and the same is obvious for the American swimmers.

Anabolic steroids

      These resemble male sex dihydrotestosterone and testosterone hormones. These are male hormones that basically play role in strengthening men’s body as compared to women. Exogenous steroids use allows fast recovery and increases in muscle protein development, thus fast muscle building makes you stronger.

     They have chronic toxicity due to chronic use like high blood pressure, premature balding, dyslipidemia, acne, infertility, and other sex associated illnesses.

     The problem comes with its use in sports; Anti-Doping World Authority has banned steroids in supports. So the point comes how the swimmers can beat anti-doping tests or blood tests and what other options can be considered. They go for alternative options and selective doses to maintain the proper muscle mass to ease swimming and fast mobility in water. Swimmers need a high level of red blood cells with high oxygen carrying that can make the player win efficiently.

       Research shows Testosterone at doses below 160.o1 mg/ml a week can be disguised.  In sports, the cheating is not just limited to steroids, there are also other modes employed by the players that are also very difficult to detect.


  • Usually, steroids are used by players and for fasten recovery, PCT is considered. Oral and injectable steroids such as Dianabol and Anabol allowed users to win a number of sports.  Overall the practice is very dangerous, and therefore the steroid use is also banned. Swimmers use “EPO” variations to increase RBCs count to enhance their body aerobic activity.
  • Steroids use is less beneficial for swimmers and they have to switch to other options to get the top winning position.
  • Swimmers also look for endurance, injury prevention, strength, confidence, and recovery.

      Sports history depicts that steroids improved swimming speed but the problem is their detection that has limited their usage, as EPO drug users were caught cheating. In this regard, USA has implemented high restrictions while foreign swimmers have been observed with another scenario where coaches have been found involved in doping practice to place their athletes at winning edge for their financial gain.

    The past ages are the stories when athletes had won without any performance enhancers; now the masked PED's and other modified versions that cannot be easily diagnosed are used.

Performance enhancing and anti-doping products

      Carbohydrates, synthetic erythropoietin or (EPO), and many other drugs are used for performance enhancement.

Carbohydrates as performance enhancers

     Carbohydrates are macronutrients just like fat and protein and the unique characteristic of carbohydrate are that we can consume it under lower oxygen environment or anaerobic conditions. During high exertion levels the process of oxygen transfer to cells for oxidation slows down and carbohydrates become the energy source.

     It means that anaerobic activity can be carried out without eating carbohydrates.  When you take fats and protein they generate glycogen that muscles utilize during oxygen deprivation period.  Carbohydrates make muscle fat and enhance athletic physical realization. Nutritional ketosis is associated with bad health impacts that (1)hinders the physical performance and results (2)in a reduction of dietary carbohydrates to <50 grams/day. So, nutrition is important and dietary plan is a major concern in this regard. Carbohydrates dietary intake can be considered for performance enhancing.          Better drugs, that are legal to use and better options can lead to a massive gain in health and sports areas. These are legal while anabolic steroids in sports are not legally allowed for athletes.  We can see the example of alcohol and cigarettes both are legal while marijuana is illegal. Carbohydrate consumption is also associated with some side effects like higher levels cause insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic problems, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer.



      Kidney produces Erythropoietin (EPO) hormone that maintains hemoglobin RBCs production.  These cells carry oxygen to the body organs and bring carbon dioxide in exchange that is removed through the lungs. RBCs carry Hemoglobin protein that performs the function of oxygen binding and carbon dioxide removal.   In case of any injury or blood donation, kidneys produce more EPO that results in more RBCs manufacturing in bone marrow.

Blood doping

        Athletes do this practice, they take out 10 to 2o % of their body blood and store a few months ago prior to the competition. Kidney diagnoses it and body produces natural EPO to attain normal hemoglobin level. Just before the competition, player re-injects the previously drawn RBCs that build high levels of protein hemoglobin. That was the old practice, now synthetic EPO is available that offer similar results.

EPO benefits

        Swimming is high energy requiring an exhaustive activity that requires high oxygen retention capacity of RBCs. Limited capacity will result in more fatigue and will imbalance the player stamina in limited time. Synthetic EPO boosts the RBCs numbers and thus associated activity that meets the player’s expectation.


      They raise the RBC level above the 15 to 16 g/dL that also happens in few disease conditions.  High viscosity blood increases blood clotting risk, myocardial infarction or heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and stroke that are fatal situations. These areas require more research to determine the true number of disease incidences in population and also the ways to avoid the severity.

Commonness between steroids, EPO and carbohydrates

  • The similarity between anabolic steroids, carbohydrates, and EPO is that all three enhances athlete performance.
  • All these are good for starters, and their effects or side effects vary individually depending on dose levels and genetic factors.
  • Regulations and drug testing are obstacles in anabolic steroids use, EPO, and carbohydrates.  These supplemental components are now mandatory to get what is targeted. Yes, that is obviously THE Victory!

EPO product description

EPO drug

      EPO/ erythropoietin can be injected to enhance athlete performance. Basically, kidney cells naturally produce the protein and kidney cells also detect oxygen levels deficiency in the bloodstream. EPO use enhances oxygen absorption, RBCs production, reduce fatigue, and it also increases the rate of metabolism and muscles healing.


Is EPO steroid? 

       EPO is a hormone and its use in Olympics is illegal or banned. So, it is not exactly the steroid.

Is carbohydrate steroid?

      Carbohydrates are classified as legal. These are not steroid, these are obtained from the diet and oral pills can also be taken after medical consultation.

Erythropoietin intense levels

     Low level of natural erythropoietin gives rise to kidney diseases or anemia that is kidney failure. Synthetic Erythropoietin treats such problems, while sport’s men take it to boost their performance level. High intensity is associated with severe risks to body particular organ such as heart muscle, liver, and lungs

Types of Blood Doping

      The most widely used blood doping types are:

  • Blood transfusions
  • Erythropoietin (EPO) injections
  • Oxygen synthetic carrier injections

      Blood transfusions: It is carried out in treating conditions like injuries, blood deficiency etc.

    Athletes also do it illegally for a performance boost. It may be autologous transfusion or homologous transfusion.

    Autologous transfusion involves athlete's own body blood that is taken out and stored to use in the future. While in Homologous transfusion, blood of other person having similar group is taken for the purpose.

EPO injections simply involve syringe used to inject the dose in the body muscle.





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- Oxygen Synthetic carriers are the chemicals with the ability to transfer oxygen. These are used in medical fields to rescue the patient in the case when

  • Human blood seems unavailable
  • Or due to the contamination issues

 Athletes use it for performance-enhancing.

Recombinant erythropoietin

      Nowadays, recombinant erythropoietin is synthetically produced. It is a synthetic natural erythropoietin version that stimulates erythropoietin agents that further produces RBCs. Its purpose is to beat the tests and body complications.

       All blood doping practices enhance RBCs numbers in the body.   It involves the illegal products use such as erythropoietin (EPO), HIF stabilizers and darbepoetin-alfa to enhance oxygen adsorption by cells. Oxygen uptake depends directly on cells oxygen extraction, cardiac output, and hemoglobin mass.

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Hypoxia-inducible (HIF) stabilizer factor

         This HIF stabilizer is used for kidney disease treatment. This HIF stabilizer activates EPO.  These HIF stabilizers with cobalt chloride or desferrioxamine are used by the athletes to either stimulate and stopping the erythropoietin hormone production in the body. Later, body itself decays or naturally removes this substance.

Trispyrophosphate Myo-inositol 

     This compound is the current research subject in field of anti-doping for athletes in different fields, swimming, cycling etc.

Cobalt Chloride

      It is a metal complex and inorganic in nature that is also considered important in process of blood doping. Cobalt complex is used for the dietary supplement as Cobalamin develops RBCs. However, it yields very mild results, while Cobalt (II) chloride yields fast and better results as compared to a simple compound.


      But, there are methods that have been given by the sports authorities to detect even the presence of such mineral complexes. Athletes use such variants and new or emerging varieties of compounds are developed in laboratories with mask effects to beat the doping tests.

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