Steroid Use By Swimmers:
Androgenic Steroids improve performance by increasing tissue mass. These also help in carrying more oxygen through blood cells and also enhance nerve induction or signaling. A trained individual gets more benefit out of any pattern or therapy, and the same is evident for the American swimmers.
These resemble male sex dihydrotestosterone and testosterone hormones. These are male hormones that play a role in strengthening men’s body as compared to women. Exogenous steroids use allows fast recovery and increases in muscle protein development; thus, fast muscle building makes you stronger.
They have chronic toxicity due to constant use like high blood pressure, premature balding, dyslipidemia, acne, infertility, and other sex associated illnesses.
The problem comes with its use in sports; Anti-Doping World Authority has banned steroids in supports. So the point comes how the swimmers can beat anti-doping tests or blood tests and what other options can consider. They go for alternative options and selective doses to maintain the proper muscle mass to ease swimming and electric mobility in water. Swimmers need a high level of red blood cells with high oxygen-carrying that can make the player win efficiently.
Research shows Testosterone at doses below 160 mg/ml a week can be disguised. In sports, cheating does not just limit to steroids; there are also other modes employed by the players that are also very difficult to detect.
- Usually, steroids used by players, and for fasten recovery, PCT considered. Oral and injectable steroids such as Dianabol and Anabol allowed users to win several sports. Overall the practice is hazardous, and therefore the steroid use is also banned. Swimmers use “EPO” variations to increase RBCs count to enhance their body aerobic activity.
- Steroids use less beneficial for swimmers, and they have to switch to other options to get the top winning position.
- Swimmers also look for endurance, injury prevention, strength, confidence, and recovery.
Sports history depicts that steroids improved swimming speed, but the problem is their detection that has limited their usage, as EPO drug users were caught cheating. The USA implemented high restrictions while foreign swimmers observed with another scenario where coaches have been found involved in doping practice to place their athletes at winning edge for their financial gain.
The past ages were the stories when athletes had won without any performance enhancers; now the masked PED's and other modified versions that cannot be diagnosed are used.
Performance Enhancing and Anti-Doping Products:
Synthetic erythropoietin or (EPO), Carbohydrates, and many other drugs used for performance enhancement.
Carbohydrates as Performance Enhancers:
Carbohydrates are macronutrients just like fat and protein, and the unique characteristic of starch is that we can consume it under lower oxygen environment or anaerobic conditions. During high exertion levels, the process of oxygen transfer to cells for oxidation slows down, and carbohydrates become the energy source.
It means that anaerobic activity can be carried out without eating carbohydrates. When you take fats and protein, they generate glycogen that muscles utilize during oxygen deprivation period. Carbohydrates make muscle fat and enhance athletic physical realization. Nutritional ketosis is associated with adverse health impacts that (1)hinders the physical performance and results (2)in a reduction of dietary carbohydrates to <50 grams/day. So, nutrition is an essential, and nutritional plan is a significant concern in this regard. Carbohydrates dietary intake can be considered for performance-enhancing. Better drugs that are legal to use and better options can lead to a massive gain in health and sports areas. These are legal while anabolic steroids in sports, but also does not allow legally for athletes to use them. We can see the example of alcohol and cigarettes both are legal while marijuana is illegal. Carbohydrate consumption also associated with some side effects like higher levels cause insulin resistance, obesity, metabolic problems, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, and cancer.
Efamol EPO, 1000:
The kidney produces Erythropoietin (EPO) hormone that maintains hemoglobin RBCs production. These cells carry oxygen to the body organs and bring carbon dioxide in exchange that removes through the lungs. RBCs carry Hemoglobin protein that performs the function of oxygen binding and carbon dioxide removal. In case of any injury or blood donation, kidneys produce more EPO that results in more RBCs manufacturing in the bone marrow.
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Athletes do this practice; they take out 10 to 2o % of their body blood and store a few months ago before the competition. Kidney diagnoses it, and the body produces natural EPO to attain an average hemoglobin level. Just before the tournament, player re-injects the previously drawn RBCs that build high levels of the protein hemoglobin. That was the old practice; now, synthetic EPO is available that offer similar results.
Swimming is high energy-requiring an exhaustive activity that requires high oxygen retention capacity of RBCs. Limited capacity will result in more fatigue and will imbalance the player stamina in limited time. Synthetic EPO boosts the RBCs numbers and thus associated activity that meets the player’s expectation.
They raise the RBC level above the 15 to 16 g/dL that also happens in few disease conditions. High viscosity blood increases blood clotting risk, myocardial infarction or heart attack, pulmonary embolism, and stroke that are fatal situations. These areas require more research to determine the exact number of disease incidences in population and also the ways to avoid the severity.
Commonness between steroids, EPO and carbohydrates
- The similarity between anabolic steroids, sugars, and EPO is that all three enhances athlete performance.
- All these are good for starters, and their effects or side effects vary individually depending on dose levels and genetic factors.
- Regulations and drug testing are obstacles in anabolic steroids use, EPO, and carbohydrates. These supplemental components are now mandatory to get what targeted. Yes, that is THE Victory!
EPO product Description:
EPO/ erythropoietin can inject to enhance athlete performance. Kidney cells naturally produce the protein, and kidney cells also detect oxygen levels deficiency in the bloodstream. EPO use enhances oxygen absorption, RBCs production, reduce fatigue, and it also increases the rate of metabolism and muscles healing.
Is EPO Steroid?
EPO is a hormone, and its use in the Olympics is illegal or banned. So, it is not precisely the steroid.
Is Carbohydrate Steroid?
Carbohydrates classify as legal. These are not a steroid, these obtained from the diet and oral pills can also take after medical consultation.
Erythropoietin Intense Levels:
Low level of natural erythropoietin gives rise to kidney diseases or anemia that is kidney failure. Synthetic Erythropoietin treats such problems, while sport’s men take it to boost their performance level. High intensity associated with severe risks to particular body organ such as heart muscle, liver, and lungs
Types of Blood Doping
The most widely used blood doping types are:
- Blood transfusions
- Erythropoietin (EPO) injections
- Oxygen synthetic carrier injections
Blood transfusions: It is carried in treating conditions like injuries, blood deficiency, etc.
Athletes also do it illegally for a performance boost. It may be autologous transfusion or homologous transfusion.
Autologous transfusion involves the athlete's body blood that is taken out and stored to use in the future. While in Homologous transfusion, the blood of other person having similar group taken for the purpose.
- EPO injections involve syringe used to inject the dose in the body muscle.
- Oxygen Synthetic carriers are chemicals with the ability to transfer oxygen. These are used in medical fields to rescue the patient in the case when
- Human blood seems unavailable
- Or due to the contamination issues
Athletes use it for performance-enhancing.
Nowadays, recombinant erythropoietin synthetically produced. It is a synthetic natural erythropoietin version that stimulates erythropoietin agents that further produces RBCs. Its purpose is to beat the tests and body complications.
All blood doping practices enhance RBCs numbers in the body. It involves the illegal products use such as erythropoietin (EPO), HIF stabilizers, and darbepoetin-alfa to increase oxygen absorption by cells. Oxygen uptake depends directly on cells oxygen extraction, cardiac output, and hemoglobin mass.
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Hypoxia-Inducible (HIF) Stabilizer Factor:
This HIF stabilizer, used for kidney disease treatment. This HIF stabilizer activates EPO. These HIF stabilizers with cobalt chloride or desferrioxamine used by the athletes to either stimulate and stopping the erythropoietin hormone production in the body. Later, the body itself decays or naturally removes this substance.
This compound is the current research subject in the field of anti-doping for athletes in different areas, swimming, cycling, etc.
It is a metal complex and inorganic in nature that is also considered necessary in the process of blood doping. Cobalt complex used for the dietary supplement as Cobalamin develops RBCs. However, it yields very mild results, while Cobalt (II) chloride yields fast and better results as compared to a pure compound.
But, some methods are given by the sports authorities to detect even the presence of such mineral complexes. Athletes use such variants and new or emerging varieties of compounds developed in laboratories with mask effects to beat the doping tests.