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Muscle Profiling-Is Muscularity Evidence of a Crime?




           Criminality and muscularity have for long been placed in one jar. Most people believe the two are closely related. As a matter of fact, it is normally assumed that muscularity has a huge role to play in most of society’s evils. The whole concept of muscularity, also referred to as mesomorphy, has been highly demonized. There have been allegations over time that tends to associate undesirable behavior with muscularity. This form of muscle profiling has become quite popular in today’s society. A good example is that of Toney Freeman who was arrested due to his muscularity, back in Sweden. He is one of the top pro bodybuilders of today.

AAS use & muscularity:

The same applies to the use of AAS (Anabolic Androgen Steroids). As explained by Harrison, a renowned psychiatrist, there is however a very intense desire to work out and use AAS drugs portrayed by muscular individuals. Mr. Pope describes this desire as “inappropriate”. He also goes ahead to explain that there is no way an individual with a Fat-Free Mass Index (FFMI) of over 25 can achieve such without the use of steroids, and specifically FFMI.

The bottom line here is that the massive use of AAS drugs has majorly led to the advent of muscularity in the society. The two, muscularity and the use of AAS, are highly condemned in the society due to the whole issue of “muscle profiling”. However, a lot of scrutiny is demanded for such an assertion.

Why is it that the FFMI is used in the comparisons?

Research has shown that FFM as part of the body mass can be extremely incorrect. As a matter of fact, FFM ratios are considered to be in linearity to the body’s height. This is why short individuals with muscular bodies have a lower FFM percentage as compared to taller individuals with less muscular bodies.

This is regardless of whether or not they are users of AAS or not. Actually, tall bodybuilders have at least a 2 point gap between them with regards to their FFMI as compared to their shorter counterparts. The bottom line here is that regardless of the relationship between the FFM and height, anyone with an FFMI of over 35 must have something to do with the use of AAS.

Consider two individuals, one with an FFMI of 26 and 72 inches tall and another with an FFMI of 29 and 69 inches tall. According to Pope and his fellow elites; if the two claim not to use AAS, then they are ‘almost certainly lying’.

However, another individual 5 inches tall with an FFMI of 24.5 is on the other hand considered to be a genuine non-user of AAS. The only thing that differentiates the two parties is a couple of inches, yet, the 72’ and 69’ are all potential victims of muscle profiling in today’s society.


Is it just to use an FFMI of 25 as the cut score for all AAS users in the society? Practically, it is not. How likely is it that such individuals belong to the ‘users’ group? It is a perfect means of measuring one’s physique but certainly not a validating means of establishing whether or not they are capable of perpetrating societal evils.

There is not enough support as to why exactly an individual with an FFMI of over 25 is assumed to be a straight user of AAS hence making him a ‘muscle profiling’ suspect. At the end of the day, the muscular individuals in the society have very little representation. Chances of this study evoking some level of sympathy among the masses are quite low.


Building muscle mass is what I like to talk about. If your aim is to build a solid body, then my posts would be very beneficial to you. I always want to know your opinion, so don't hesitate to drop a line below or contact me.

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