Steroids are synthetic drugs just like the natural hormones in the body. AAS (Anabolic Androgenic Steroids) is the type of steroids, which copy the effect of male hormones and testosterone; used by people to build muscles and to increase strength. AAS are different from corticosteroids, which are medically used to treat asthma. There are more than one meaning of steroid. There is a medicine that's name is “steroid,” which people take to reel asthma and skin problems. Steroids help to reduce stress and increase the growth of the body.
Do you know there are some illegal anabolic steroids? Yes, the artificially produced hormones like androgens (Male-type sex hormones in the body). Anabolic Steroids are in the form of pills, injections, or powders.
Athletes use Anabolic Steroids to increase their muscle strength and mass. Girls also use steroids to become stronger.
Supplements are also available which contain anabolic steroids. Promoted by the ads and through magazines. Legal and illegal supplements cause health problems. Some are banned in the United States, but some are legal until now. Children’s should not take steroid supplements, either they are present in the market because they are dangerous for health.
Functions of Steroids:
There are two varieties of steroids developed for medical treatments. One is Anabolic Steroids which you hear most and as we also discussed them. They behave like male sex hormones, and medically they are used for the treatment of problems like late puberty and muscles loss in patients who have cancer and AIDS.
Although they are used for building muscles yet, they used for the cure of allergic reactions and autoimmune diseases. For autoimmune diseases, especially Prednisone is suggested for treating lupus and arthritis. (it is a famous type of Corticosteroid).
Anabolic Steroids and Corticosteroids both can be injected muscularly, and they can be either taken orally or by scrubbing on the body. They use in the muscle’s growth. According to research, various kinds of anabolic steroids have been introduced.
Our muscles become hard due to work out because of the creation of micro-tears in muscles fibers. Muscles will restart growing, and with the repetition of this process, they ultimately become hard and colossal. In this regard, the anabolic steroid works best as they enhance the pace of muscle healing by preventing the breakdown of muscle tissues. It is preferable for the use of athletes.
Types of Steroids:
Commonly known as anabolic steroids:
- Deca-Durabolin ("Deca" for short)
- Equipoise ("Eq" for short)
- Dianabol ("Dbol" for short)
Let’s discuss a few major types:
Dianabol (DBol) is hormone/organic compound used to increase the ability and working power of the human body. It is widely used for bodybuilding and said the basic of the bodybuilding’s Arnold Schwarzenegger time. Dbol took orally, and it is very poisonous/toxic for liver.
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Trenbolone Acetate is considered as the best hormone that a person can take either in the beginning or at any time. It is super diverse. Tren made as a veterinary supplement used to increase the size of animals.
Anavar, an oral organic compound used by men and women. A modest steroid and di-hydro testosterone obtained, frequently prescribed by doctors for gaining weight. Anavar is a constructive metabolism rating 3–6x higher than average testosterone. Anavar used as an “initial” steroid because of fewer side effects and want of strong androgenic effects.
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Deca Durabolin is a derivative of Nandrolone. It is less harmful than testosterone. The reason for Deca popularity is bulking steroid and its minimal side effects.
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PROs of Steroids:
Steroids said as performance-enhancing drugs used to enhance natural body performance. Artificial steroids used for the growth of reproductive organs, bones, body, hair, and muscles, proved by research.
- Stamina Testosterone steroids used to improve the stamina for physical activities of athletes or fitness enthusiasts.
- Weight Organic compounds are used to increase body weight and change shape, so it is widely used by sportsmen to shape their body.
- Remedies - Steroids are used by athletes to cure their minor injuries or accidents because it has remedial effects.
Cons of Steroids:
Any invention has side effects and risk involvement, so steroids also have side effects. These steroids boost the performance than standard capacity.
- Addiction If a person uses steroids daily then he became an addict of those because the chemical effects on his body, the steroids boost the working ability of body than natural capacity, so the person prefers to go for steroids further because he became used to with those organic compounds.
- Infertility The human body stops producing natural hormones, or it produces fewer hormones as compare to previous hormones when chemical hormones are uses too much so over usage of organic compound cause infertility.
- Health Steroids affect other body functions along with the purpose of their usage; they cause high cholesterol level, which increases the risk of heart diseases, high blood pressure, and over-weight.
- Withdrawal If a regular user of steroids wants to get rid of steroids and he stops using it suddenly, then the person may be feeling lazy, weak, depression, nausea, nervous break-down or body pains. Therefore, the natural body way of performance can change by a steroid.
What are Peptides?
Peptides are protein in nature. They compile two or more amino acids which link together to form an amide. This linkage is covalent in the environment and formed between an amino acid (via a carboxyl group) and another amino acid (through nitrogen ending).
The primary difference between protein and peptides lies in the altering number of amino acids. When two amino acids covalently bond, they will form dipeptides. Many multi proteins bond together they will be called as Polypeptide, which contains 10-50 amino acids residues are commonly known as peptides. The protein number can go up to 50.
Most of the time, synthetic peptides we can see in the form of pharmaceutical products that includes some essential hormones as well as such as steroids, calcitonin, oxytocin, and adrenocorticotropic hormone. Based on various application and needs, the peptide has incurred multiple forms. Similarly, in different branches of biology, they are learning for different purposes.
Such as in cell biology, when they bind on the base of the receptor, they develop a new form commonly called enzymes. Now, these natural forms can replace with synthetic ones — for instance, the drugs used for treating cancer.
Some other uses of synthetic peptides have also come forward like they are used as reagents and standards in mass spectrometry (MS)-based applications. They play a vital role in terms of quantitation and characterization of proteins as well as biomarkers in many diseases. As far as the synthesis of peptides is concerned, they are significant for two ways of formation, solid-phase Fmoc peptide synthesis (SPPS) and liquid-phase peptide synthesis.
It is a chemical bond which formed when two molecules bind together in a way that the amino group of one molecule reacts with the carboxyl group of one molecule reacts and as a result, it releases one molecule of water (H2O). Due to the release of the water molecule, this reaction is called a condensation reaction or dehydration synthesis reaction. The bond of a carboxyl group and amino group together makes a relationship which calls a peptide bond, and the consequential molecule calls as an amide.
Types of Peptides:
In this article, we will briefly discuss a few types of peptides which are given below:
- Dipeptides HGH Fragment:
It formed because of the reaction between two amino acids forming one peptide bond. For example; Anserine (β-alanyl-N-methylhistidine) and Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine).
This compound will form because of a reaction between 3 molecules of amino acids, and as a result, they will create 2 peptide bonds. For examples; Ophthalmic acid (L-γ-Glutamyl-α-L-amino butyral-glycine) and Glutathione (Glutamyl-cysteinyl-glycine)
- Oligopeptide: When amino acids in a range of 2-20 are chemically bonded through the peptide bond; as a result, the Oligopeptides will form. For example; Amanitin (Decapeptide) and Tetrapeptide; Tulfsin (threonine-lysine-proline-Arginine).
- Polypeptides When a peptide bond links more than 20 amino acids, the polypeptides will form — for example, Growth hormone and insulin.
Functions of Peptides:
Following are the features of the peptide in a human body:
- Structural Functions In a human body, the main structure, formed of protein. Such as they compose the external membrane of every cell in the body, together they made human hair, skin, muscles, organs, and even tissues.
- Driving Biochemical Reaction The essential items that run the biochemical reactions in a human body are enzymes. And enzymes are protein in nature. Enzymes act as a pacemaker in chemical reactions occurring in the human body. The most common examples are a chemical reaction in the nervous system, breathing, and digestion. Especially in terms of metabolism, where a series of biochemical reactions to convert food into energy.
- Hormonal Regulation is the vital parts of the human body, which also make up of peptides. If a human body lacks the proper number of peptides in hormones it can even lead to severe cases such as puberty. They can even severely affect the other process, such as the production of sperm, menstrual cycle, and fertility in females. Other than this they are the determinants of the aging process, metabolism, regulate muscle mass, regulate moods and hair growth
- Regulation of Cell Division either mitosis or meiosis, none can run with the peptides/protein deficiency. They replace the replenished cells and form new ones. There can be a different cause of cell damage such as exposure to the sun, chemical, and pollution. When a battery dies, the healthy one divides into two along with regulation through peptides. Upon a lack of protein leads to failure of cell growth, ultimately causing tumor growth and cancer.
- Immune System Actions Antibodies are all, and all made up of peptide structure. They are highly essential for maintaining health and keeping the immune system healthy. Antibodies fight against virus and bacteria. Although the basic structure of the peptide in the antibody may differ, yet the presence of peptides. Antibody plays a communicative role, after detecting the invading germ the keep the immune system alert and helps to destroy the invader.
Pros of Peptides:
Let’s discuss a few general advantages f peptides:
- Copies of the synthetic peptide can make easy for the human to fight against disease like cancer.
- It has less percentage of toxicity as it lacks external proteins and nucleic acid.
- Used in various anti-aging creams.
- Best in use for anti-microbial treatments.
- Essential component that forms the new skin at the place of disrupted one.
- Helps to perform several essential body functions such as enzymes to speed up reactions, antibodies for the immune system, upon breakage produce water molecule in the body, hormones control the various functions even including sexual development in both males and females. All these functions are not possible without peptides.
- Similar to nature peptides in a human body, science has reached levels where it can even synthesize the peptides in form or drugs as well as use them in the various diagnostic tool.
Cons of Peptides:
Let’s discuss a few disadvantages of the peptides as well:
- As it is a part of various types of cells such as T cell epitopes, so in their absence, they will adversely affect the system of elicit cell-mediated immunity (CMI).
- Peptides may assume less immunogenic that compared to conventional as it causes inactivation of whole-virus vaccines.
- It will require adjuvant, which means, a substance that a body needs to enhance the immune system.